slavery africa

Even in today's world, there are wars and rumors of war almost everywhere you go. There were wars in Europe in those days and there were wars in America. There were wars almost everywhere in the world. There were tribal wars in Africa too.

The difference between the tribal wars in Africa and the wars in the outside world was that, in the outside world, the conquered were often butchered (due in part to the highly sophisticated weapons of war used) whereas the conquered in Sub-Saharan Africa, became part of the conqueror. In other words, while no enemy was left standing in the outside world, the conquered enemies were left to live and serve in Africa.

So it is true there were some "slaves" in Africa in those days before the white man came. However, those "slaves" were not taken purposely to become "slaves" of another kingdom or empire. They were just victims of tribal wars, and it was somehow better than what was happening in the outside world where no enemy was allowed to live. Also, in most cases, this "servitude" wasn't permanent. In fact, once there was peace and understanding among the opposing factions, those in servitude ceased to be "slaves" and could return home. There was also a form of servitude whereby people voluntarily went into servitude to pay for financial, customary and other forms of debt. Once again, this wasn't permanent. Once the debt was paid, those people ceased to be servants and returned home. In fact, this form of servitude is still practiced in some rural communities in Africa.

Was Africa one nation? Were Africans one people? Were the Europeans in Africa just to trade? If Africans willingly participated in the "trade" then why would the Europeans bring battle troops and weapons of war all the way from Europe to Africa? Why the so many "Europeans against Natives" wars in African history, and what were the Europeans fighting for in Africa? Were the European currencies of any value to Africans? Was there a common currency in Africa? Which currency was used to buy slaves in Africa? Was there no wine in Africa? Did Africans willingly trade ship-loads of "valuable" slaves for just bottles of wine? Does the Bible permit slavery and slave trade? Why did the church participate in the slave trade? 

In most parts of Africa, stories were orally told from generations to generations, sometimes through music, art and culture. There may be some little embelishments and slight deviations from generation to generation and from community to community. However, the simple fact and the basic truth mostly remain. Before I continue, I am not a "historian" and I don't claim to be one. However, I am an African and I cherish our culture and traditions. Also, I did study history in school and I was taught by someone who actually knew what he was talking about.

I read an article online today and I was shocked to read so many people believe Africans sold their own brothers and sisters into slavery just like that. I wanted to comment on the article but the comment section had been disabled and that is why I am making this post to let people know that, Africans (my ancestors) weren't that "stupid" to have sold our own brothers and sisters into slavery just like that. We (my ancestors) were "stupid" to have allowed ourselves to be manipulated by the foreigners (or "white strangers"). We were "stupid" to have trusted the "white stranger" in the first place and we were "stupid" to have allowed the "white stranger" into our land. My ancestors allowed the white strangers into our land because, they (the white strangers) said they "come in peace".

In continuation, please note that there were 2 types of slave trading in Africa. The one introduced mostly by the coming of Islam through the Arab raiders and traders from the Middle East and North Africa or the Trans-Saharan slave trade and the one introduced by the coming of the Europeans or the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (the one I am talking about). The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade is deeply rooted in the Islamic cultures of several countries in the North (especially in the Maghreb region or the "Berber world") and still practiced although "silently" by Muslim-dominant countries such as Mauritania and Libya.

According to my grandfather, In those days when there were no Christianity and no modern day government systems in Africa, Kings, Queens, and other traditional rulers ruled their kingdoms as heads of state and judged cases according to the rules and regulations of the land. Those who disobeyed the laws of the land were punished and those who obeyed and sacrificed for the land were rewarded accordingly. Although every land had some "prison" facilities, those prisons weren't meant for large groups of criminals so those who killed were killed. Those who stole paid dearly for it. Those who slept with people's wives were banished from the land. Children who disobeyed elders were punished accordingly. And so on.

My country Ghana in West Africa, was a major Slave Trading Post (Headquarters) where slaves from different parts of Africa were brought and arranged before shipping abroad.

When the white strangers first came to Africa, We (my ancestors) were not sure about their intentions so most communities drove them away from their land. However, the white strangers managed to convince some of our traditional rulers that they had not come to cause any harm but just to preach the good news (the Bible) and also to trade with the local people. It was barter trading where goods were exchanged for goods. My country Ghana was called "Gold Coast". Why? Because, gold was in abundance. Although my ancestors valued gold as a precious metal, the white strangers valued it more. To the white strangers, gold was more precious than blood in some cases. In other words, my ancestors had gold in abundance and the white strangers needed some of the gold. The only way for the white strangers to get pieces of gold in Africa, was to trade things like bottles of wine, clothing and textiles, guns and ammunitions, etc. That was how the "trade" started.

Some of the local chiefs along the coast started accepting the white strangers by giving them place to stay. The white strangers started building missionary centers where they stayed and preached the gospel and also traded with the local people. The white strangers later on expanded those missionary centers (including churches and cathedrals) into forts and castles where they packed slaves before shipping them abroad.

The white strangers did not understand the local language and the local people did not understand a word the white strangers were saying so it made communication very difficult. To help break the language barrier, the white strangers went to the local rulers and asked the local rulers to give them some of the local people to train so they could speak the foreign language which would make communication easier but none of those local rulers were ready to give their people out to go stay with strangers.

Later on, some of the local rulers came up with an idea that, since the white strangers said they came to preach the "good news" which was meant to change people from their bad ways, they could actually give those criminals mentioned above to the white strangers so the white strangers could preach the good news they said they came to preach to those criminals, change them into good people, and also train them in the foreign language in order to aid communication. This they thought was better than killing those criminals. So the traditional rulers gave those criminals out to the white strangers and to show appreciation, those white strangers gave gifts like textiles, bottles of wine, mirrors, etc. to the traditional rulers. That was how the white strangers got their first "local servers".

Those local people (the criminals) lived and served the white strangers in the castles and forts and learned the foreign language which enabled them to serve as mediators, translating the local language for the white strangers and the foreign language to the local people. This helped a lot in communication.

As I mentioned earlier on, those local servers living with the white strangers were the criminals in the society, and although they served as mediators and made communication a whole lot easier, they also made life a living hell for the local people (some as a form of revenge). For example, when the white strangers sent them to go collect taxes (lets say 5 pieces of gold), those criminals added their own taxes and made it 7 pieces of gold. At times too, they mis-translated just so they could get more power. Some of those criminals even became more powerful than the traditional rulers. In other words, the white strangers, after preaching the "good news" to those criminals, turned them into far more dangerous monsters than they were before. Why? Because only the white man had guns at that time and they shot anyone the criminals considered "criminals".

Those criminals were the few "Africans" who helped the white strangers to get more slaves. However, don't forget the fact that they were criminals condemned to death in their various societies for being "Un-African".

Those local people living with the white strangers served and "worshiped" them so well to the point where the white strangers began asking for more. Because of the benefits they derived from those local servers, some of the white strangers took some local servers with them on their return home. Back home (abroad), they found those local servers (the black men from Africa) very useful and decided to come back for more. They realized they could use them to work on their plantation farms back home to make more money. They also realized they could sell some of those 'local servers' to their friends and countrymen and make more money and that was why most of them (the white strangers but this time around slave traders) returned with the intention of picking more local servers (this time around, slaves).

So they returned for slaves but no local ruler was ready to give their people out except those criminals I mentioned earlier on and prisoners of war (tribal wars). In my country for example, the Ashantis and those living in the interior parts of the country did not want to have anything to do with the white strangers. In fact, the first white stranger that set foot on the Ashanti empire, did not return.

However, the white strangers needed slaves and more slaves but there was no easy way of getting slaves in Africa. So, what the white strangers did was that, they created confusion among the various tribes so that there would be more tribal wars and more war prisoners so they could get more "slaves". And that was exactly what they did.

Before the white man came to Africa, tribal wars were mostly fought with swords, spears, bows and arrows. Although these weapons were lethal, they were nowhere near as quick and fatal as the gun. The problem here was that, only the white strangers had guns and decided which tribal group to support in times of battle. Any tribal group the white strangers supported with their powerful cannons, guns and ammunitions, easily conquered their enemies. This also created another major problem. The white strangers did not support any tribal group for free. In fact, the white strangers started demanding taxes (which included pieces of gold and prisoners of war) and total submission after victory. Any tribal group or community which failed to submit to the Europeans and pay taxes were wiped out. Sometimes the leaders of those communities were executed publicly as a form of warning to neighboring communities. Most communities in Africa were turned into concentration camps with European authorities in place.

Although not often mentioned in history books, there were well trained and well equiped European troops all across Sub-Saharan Africa, and they fought several battles with native tribes who refused to submit to European authority and that explains the several "Europeans against natives" wars in the African history.

In other words, my ancestors were not ready to give their own brothers and sisters out into slavery. In fact, most fought and died in battle just to save their communities from the hands of those white strangers. Rather, the white strangers were the ones who demonically manipulated my people by creating so much confusion between the various tribes and creating so many tribal wars all in an effort to get slaves. 

In Ghana for example, because the Ashanti empire was so powerful to defeat, the white strangers created so much confusion and so many wars between the Ashantis and the neighboring tribes, and in most cases supplied some of those neighboring tribes with guns and other powerful weapons of war to enable them defeat the Ashantis. The white strangers continued this until they were able to defeat the Ashantis and took away the king of the Ashantis (Nana Prempeh I) and the queen mother (Nana Yaa Asantewaa) and several others into exile just to break the Ashanti kingdom apart even after slavery so they could colonize and control the Ashanti gold,etc.

To conclude, my ancestors did not sell their own brothers and sisters into slavery just like that. They were deceived and demonically manipulated by those white strangers who visited our land.

Add comment
Community Builder Avatar
K. Ananse
It would be quite beneficial if people tried to answer some of the interesting questions raised in this article instead of just rushing to conclusions based on their own belief systems and educational backgrounds. For example, how often do battle troops follow ordinary people to the market with guns and bombs to go buy and sell? What were those European battle troops doing in Africa if it was a peaceful trade of "goods and services" like history wants us to believe? Can someone please explain to me the reason for the several "Europeans against natives" wars in African history? What were those Europeans fighting for in Africa if history is right that it was a peaceful trade of "goods and services"?

This article does not in any way portray Africans as saints. It is just history from an African perspective. Some Africans will give you this version of history. Others, especially the western-educated, will give you the European version. As most reasonable people know, the tales of the hunt always glorify the hunter. Imagine if lions had their own historians.

It is true our brothers and sisters taken into captivity suffered a lot and continue to suffer because of the transatlantic slave trade. However, people often forget the fact that Africans back home, and Africa as a continent, suffered and continue to suffer a great deal too. For example, millions of able-bodied men and women were taken out of the continent to provide “free labor” to the outside world. In the end, the outside world prospered (from the free labor) while Africa suffered and continues to suffer. Didn't the "slaves" and slavery help build America into what it is today? And to those of you who think Africans back home had it easy, google what slavery and colonization did to the Congo. Google how King Leopold II turned the whole of Congo into a concentration camp much worse than Hitler's. And google what percentage of Congo's population perished under Belgian rule.

Some Americans try to downplay the role of slavery and slaves in America’s rise to power and fame. In fact, some Americans say only about 2% of Americans owned slaves during the peak of slavery. However, they often forget the fact that, America's entire economy depended on slavery and slaves. In fact, the "slaves" built America. Someone may ask how? Well, didn't the expansion of slavery in the first 70-80 years after the American independence drove the evolution and modernization of the United States? Weren't slaves mercilessly tortured and made to work even harder during this period? Didn't this allow the United States to seize control of the world market for cotton, the key raw material of the Industrial Revolution? That was what made America a prosperous and powerful nation. Cotton was the "OIL" of the early 19th century and determined the wealth of nations. Cotton accounted for a staggering 50 percent of US exports and ignited the economic boom that America experienced.

Community Builder Avatar
Milton e locklear
They did similar to native Americans. It always goes to greed and money. They have no remorse. They always say how sorry they are but at no given time do they mention giving back the stolen wealth. I am sure they will find a verse. After all, they are Christians and "civilized".
Community Builder Avatar
Michael Van McMurray
I bet if China, the Russians or some Alien life form showed up on our doorstep to start a war; none of us would worry about who is Black or White or who screwed up 100 years ago. We would all be AMERICAN, Brothers and Sisters, and kicking somebody's ass. Keep in mind, that the media is going to look for the Radicals and these people are a discredit to both Black and Whites. It's easy to think that all whites think one way or all blacks think another way when you see this stuff on CNN, but truly you are only talking less than 2% that seem to speak for the rest of us. When I was in the military we all got along and respected one another. We had the same goal and same mission and the color of our skin did not prevent us from achieving these things TOGETHER.
Community Builder Avatar
Claudia Cristina Granjeiro
This manipulation was more cunning in comparison to the Aztecs who already had against them the belief that the Spaniards had been sent by the gods. Now it seemed very simplistic to me that the Africans themselves sold their own people. In Brazil, there is a break in politics, and we see a country being governed by criminals and the people are simply paralyzed and few know to conclude that there is manipulation by these criminals using the public power to try to paint the path of crimes they have committed, and which have been committed against the motherland. They distort any order of interpretation that underpins the Republic and Democracy. They have managed to instill hatred against only one party while the others, with a rare exception, are the criminals selling our country and taking our people to retreat that I could never have imagined, not only our material possessions like Petrobras, but also issues like Education, Health and other essential services are being left to be provided only for the political and economic class to accumulate and accumulate more and more to the detriment of the less favored classes and minorities. In a world with real-time information and people did not change their way of acting from those you could not go get information and relate them so that you could have some degree. How many beliefs do I have, and which ones will I be able to overcome?
Community Builder Avatar
Rich Attonito
Great article and very educational in breaking down the origin of how the slave trade began with the Europeans. Of course, it's very unfortunate and we all can't do anything about what happened. The thing I find interesting is that local tribes decided to give criminals over to the Europeans and people seem so surprised that criminals took advantage of the opportunity and basically turned on their own people. It takes two to tango. Unfortunately, the mistake of the tribes with the handling of their criminals was exploited by the economic greed of the Europeans. So, let's be real because nobody is completely innocent in this thing. Why would you ever free murderers and thieves? Perhaps if the local leaders allowed the most honorable members of the tribe to bridge the gap, then there would be a different outcome. Please don't mistake my comment because by no means does that justify the horrors that this developed into with slavery etc. I'm just commenting in regard to the subject of the article itself. God Bless.
Community Builder Avatar
Dana Gale
To those of you who want to place blame on Africans for selling their own, please read king Leopold's ghost. While it is primarily a story of how one man fed his greed by raping the Congo resulting in the death of millions of Congolese, it also shines a light on how every European contributed to get their piece of the pie. Yes, Africans sold slaves to white men. Mostly these were Africans operating out of fear, or, and we must concede this, greed. However, it does not make it right, and it certainly does not allow you to place the blame for the European and American enslavement of Africans ON the Africans. That would be like concluding the Jews were responsible for the holocaust simply because you were able to find a few Jews that turned in other Jews. Otherwise, good people act in unlikely ways when they are afraid, or even trusting of a malevolent intruder.

So, as a white person, I say to all of you white people who think that showing that Africans sold other Africans somehow reduces our culpability in the slave trade, it does not. We went into a land that was inhabited by a people with their own cultures, some more advanced by our standards than you might believe, and took out everything we could. All of the riches, all of the resources, which sadly had long lasting effects that we still see today. Read King Leopold's Ghost.

Community Builder Avatar
It saddens me to experience hate from some of our brothers and sisters that are descendants of slavery all because they think our ancestors sold them into slavery. To be honest I do understand why they think so. Indeed slavery not only hurt our ancestors that were taken into slavery, it also put Africa as a continent backward. We have our culture but the white strangers came with deceit, manipulation and took our kindness and stole our people and riches. Africans tend to trust strangers so easily if only the white men were never allowed into our lands. I hope we keep a very watchful eye on the Chinese with their so called loans.
Community Builder Avatar
Bill DeMent
Slavery was a part of our history. There is nothing we can do about it now. We fought a civil war over this question and the results was that all slaves were freed and slavery was abolished in the United States. History is history. We cannot rewrite history today to fit our own version of how we feel. There are the haves and the have nots in all societies, even the African societies from which most if not all Black Americans originate. We need to stop living in the past and start living for the future. As long as we divide ourselves into black and white we will never achieve the goals of Dr. King. For many years, I thought he was evil incarnate, but as I have aged and gained wisdom, I have come to understand that he was indeed a great man who had a vision of the future that is totally different from the race mongers of today. If he were alive, he would be ashamed of the way our society has turned out.
Community Builder Avatar
Scott Goss
Every culture and society has had slaves, but it's only the black slaves that are ever mentioned. No one else is important but blacks right? I'm so freaking sick of this. And blacks don't tell me to keep quiet about this! You don't own the rights to free speech. You were not a slave, your parents were not slaves, and your grandparents were not slaves, and your great-grandparents were not slaves. I did not own slaves, my parents did not own slaves, My grandparents did not own slaves, and my great grandparents did not own slaves. Get over it! You are not the only people who have suffered in this world. Yet your voices are the only ones we here crying all the time about everything!
Community Builder Avatar
D Budd
Well said Scott. However, Sir, you have spoilt your point by writing in such an angry manner, but all you say is right. Research the current problem of Africans enslaving Africans and selling them to the Sudanese as slaves. Not to mention, for almost 300yrs from the 16th Century, brits were enslaved by Africans. Between the beginning of the 16th century and the end of the 18th, thousands of Britons were slaves, seized by Barbary corsairs.

The Barbary corsair enterprise, which included not only taking European ships, goods and captives at sea but also raiding coastal settlements, was far larger than many people imagine. Estimates are that, across three centuries, corsairs operating out of Barbary coast ports (in north Africa) captured and enslaved more than a million Europeans. It is difficult to evaluate the cost of the goods they stole and destroyed, but it was enormous. We also know that a significant proportion of those taken captive – and of the treasure seized was British. Using oared galleys, Barbary corsairs methodically pillaged the Mediterranean throughout the 16th century, occasionally attacking English ships operating in the area. But it wasn’t until the early decades of the 17th century – when, with the help of Dutch and British renegades, the corsairs learned to sail and navigate square-rigged ships – that the corsairs focused their attacks on the people of northern Europe as well as Britain.

In summary, to some degree, all nations are as bad as each other. A friend of mine from JoBerg Africa is working hard to get money to pay for plastic surgery to get rid of his big African chunky nose {as he calls it} and for his huge lips and ears to be reduced. Poor lad, I look on him as a brother and we have been friends for years.

Community Builder Avatar
D Budd
Just thought,

To everyone on here, a good read is a book called "Twelve years a SLAVE" by SOLOMON NORTHUP. Simply brilliant, showing, as a slave, he was able to make a successful life and prospered, and bore no grudges against his slave masters. Keep safe everyone.

Community Builder Avatar
Shanon Sugges
There was slavery in many different forms throughout history. The difference between those and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade is the circumstances surrounding the ability to enslave someone. It was historically a by-product of war. The winning side took slaves from the losing side and used them to rebuild their country. There were others who were taken and enslaved, but it was for the most part illegal and done in the shadows. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was the first time that a person's color was used as a criteria to enslave people.

And for those who believe slavery was over in 1865 after Lincoln freed them, slavery never ended. It only changed to an institution of the state. It was an acceptable punishment if you committed a crime. Read the 13th and 14th Amendments. Shortly after the emancipation proclamation, laws were passed that targeted freed Africans so that the state could then turn them back over to the plantations they had work on through the convict leasing program. This still exist today.

Community Builder Avatar
Michael DelGrosso
Was a nasty, but necessary war fought in America to free black slaves? Because of that nasty, but necessary war, have blacks realized that they are free? Do blacks realize that even awful, horrific crimes against you don't have to mean the forever destruction of you? Are blacks able to forgive? Are blacks able to acknowledge that many peoples have been enslaved no matter how it happened, yet they have not self-destructed? Do blacks ignore the huge leaps and bounds made by blacks? Can blacks accept that everyone's best and worst quality is that we are human, therefore we sometimes make horrible decisions? Do blacks know that slavery is not what drives you to kill your fellow black American? Do blacks realize that slave owners are not what drives absentee parents? Can blacks let go of the past, so that their hands are open to take hold of their future?

If blacks cannot understand and accept the obvious answers to the aforementioned questions, they will continue to be a bottom-rung race of free, but unequal (by their own hands) people. The past happens in order to make ready the path for the future. Your present situation is only as permanent as you want it to be. Change direction, change your future.

Community Builder Avatar
Joe Michigan
The ONLY African Americans I know are the ones born in Africa. I have had the pleasure of knowing a number of them and they are in many ways like me in my understanding of what it is like to be away from the "mother" country, and the work ethic it takes to make something new in the USA. My parents born overseas and myself experiencing the "old country" for 8 years gives me a rather unique perspective. People whose ancestors have lived for more than 3 generations in the US just don't understand that. Except for the Americans of African descent that decide to leave the familiar confines of the black neighborhood. They become immigrants all over again, with their own kin rejecting them for not "representing" and the white people not understanding what they are going through.
Community Builder Avatar
This article is making a very important point but sadly some people are getting it all wrong. The article is not claiming no single African participated. However, under what circumstances or conditions were those who participated? Also, is it right to generalize an entire continent based on the actions of some selected few?

There are evil men in every society. Even heaven had Lucifer, and I think it would be quite insane for someone to think that no single African helped the white man get slaves. The criminals in our societies were punished for their crimes. Then the white man came with the Bible promising to change criminals into good people. We released those criminals to them and what did they do? the white man supplied those criminals with guns and brainwashed them into killing machines (all because the white man needed slaves). Those criminals never got paid for their services (as in selling the captured slaves). Their payment was in kind as in "revenge". Also, those criminals represented an insignificant fraction of the population. Take WW2 for example. Adolf Hitler had an entire army supporting him, but would it be OK to say, "German people killed the Jews during the Holocaust"? We only hear "Adolf Hitler murdered 6 million Jews". Several Jews helped Adolf Hitler murder their fellow Jews yet how often we hear "Jews murdered their fellow Jews during the Holocaust"? Why then is it OK to generalize and blame an entire continent for crimes masterminded by outsiders (Europeans)? That is where history is wrong.

Community Builder Avatar
Muslims took all kinds of slaves it is known in medieval times that many trade routes were founded by Muslim traders that go all the way from the Rusian steps to the Middle East then into Northern Africa and Europe. This known and factual according to medieval history. The routes had been used for thousands of years. It is also known that Muslims sold Africans that were acquired from other African tribes. Then sold into Europe. Muslim Arabs would trade anything and sell it where they would get the best price that also included any slave black white Asian or European.
Community Builder Avatar
This is a great read. Thank You for sharing. Perspective is important when studying history and often history is reduced to dates and whatever is most palatable. I went looking for something like this today because I have a hard time believing that most slaves were purchased from other African slave owners. This account makes sense to me.
Community Builder Avatar
Jack Rigg
Michael McMurray:
It's a weird thing how some people try to exalt the military as supposedly THE symbol/example of the best about the U.S.

The military is a tyrannical dictatorial organization that's the opposite of a democracy and strips people of their individual freedoms and liberty. And they do so by openly admitted 'brainwashing' when they "break people" in bootcamp so they can "build them back up again" to be mindless bots.

Community Builder Avatar
ed chapman
I went to an all-white college in Texas back in the '60's and got a BS in history with a specialty in southern history and I must say, the professors I had were very specific about white slavers invading the west coast of Africa, and from what I still remember, there was believed to be minimal instances of Africans selling their own people and we were required to do a lot of supplemental reading and research in the library and I can tell you - at least 90% of the slave trade was perpetrated by legions of white slavers. This recent push to throw the blame on the African people looks to be a kind of white supremist ruse to continue the white policy of doing anything to feel superior and yes, I'm an old white man but God didn't put us on earth to hate each other. This recent surge in placing culpability on Africans for slaves coming to America is rubbish - I'd love to see some non-biased, non-rightwing proof on this. Otherwise - haters give it up.
Community Builder Avatar
D Budd
Ed, not a lot to say except,
Between the beginning of the 16th century and the end of the 18th, thousands of Britons were slaves, seized by Barbary corsairs. The Barbary corsair enterprise, which included not only taking European ships, goods and captives at sea but also raiding coastal settlements, was far larger than many people imagine. Estimates are that, across three centuries, corsairs operating out of Barbary coast ports (in north Africa), captured and enslaved more than a million Europeans. It is difficult to evaluate the cost of the goods they stole and destroyed, but it was enormous. We also know that a significant proportion of those taken captive – and of the treasure seized was British. Using oared galleys, Barbary corsairs methodically pillaged the Mediterranean throughout the 16th century, occasionally attacking English ships operating in the area. But it wasn’t until the early decades of the 17th century – when, with the help of Dutch and British renegades, the corsairs learned to sail and navigate square-rigged ships – that the corsairs focused their attacks on the people of northern Europe as well as Britain. I guess what comes round comes round. Keep safe.

This website uses cookies (including third-party cookies) to personalize, analyze and improve user experience. By clicking on "Accept" or continuing, you agree to our use of cookies. Please visit our privacy policy page for More information