Ugandan manThe Republic of Uganda (or "Uganda" for short) is a landlocked East African country bordering the Republic of South Sudan to the north, the Republic of Kenya to the east, the Republic of Tanzania to the south, the Republic of Rwanda to the south-west and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. 

Although landlocked, the Republic of Uganda is a well-watered country with several rivers and lakes. This includes a huge section of Lake Victoria which is Africa's largest natural lake by surface area and the world's largest tropical lake. Lake Victoria is also the world's second largest fresh water lake by surface area (second only to Lake Superior in North America). In fact, Lake Victoria covers almost the entire south-eastern corner of Uganda. Uganda shares Lake Victoria with Kenya and Tanzania.

The Republic of Uganda has a total land area of about 241,038 squared kilometers (about 43,938 sq km of which is covered by water). Just about 34.3% of this total land area remains arable (land good for farming).

The Republic of Uganda has an estimated population of 50 million people with the population growth rate hovering around 3.31%. Almost half (about 46.5%) of Uganda's population is under the age of 15. The Ages 15 to 64 group makes up about 51.54% of the total population while seniors (ages 65+) form the remaining fraction (about 1.96%) of the population.

About 25.6% of Uganda's population lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Kampala the capital. Kampala's metropolitan area is home to about 3.5 million people. Other popular cities and towns such as Nansana, Kira, Ssabagabo, Mbarara, Mukono, Njeru, Gulu, Lugazi, Masaka, Kasese, Hoima, Lira, Mityana, Mubende, Entebbe, Jinja, Masindi and Kitgum also contain significant portions of the population. 

The remaining fraction of Uganda's population lives in rural and sub-urban communities mostly as poor subsistence farmers who grow crops such as cassava (also known as yuca or manioc), plantain, maize, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, beans, bananas, sorghum, etc. and also rear animals like cattle, goats, sheep, poultry, etc. just to feed themselves and their families. In fact, according to World Bank statistics, Uganda had about 16 million people in the labor force in 2015. About 71% of them (about 11.4 million people) were into agriculture (mostly subsistent).

The Republic of Uganda is a culturally rich country with a blend of several ethnic and racial groups. The Baganda people, the most populous ethnic group, make up about 16.5% of the total population followed by the Banyankole with about 9.6% of the population. The Basoga people make up about about 8.8% of the total population followed by the Bakiga (about 7.1% of the population), the Iteso (about 7% of the population), the Langi (about 6.3% of the population), the Bagisu (about 4.9% of the population), Acholi (about 4.4% of the population) and Lugbara (about 3.3% of the total population). Other minor groups together make up the remaining fraction of the population. 

English and Swahili are the two official languages spoken in Uganda today. Apart from these two, the Republic of Uganda has about forty-three other living languages. For example, Ganda or Luganda (the most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, is also the language used most often in Kampala the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Arabic, etc. are also written and spoken in Uganda today.

The Republic of Uganda is a Christian-dominant country with over 80% of the population identifying as Christians. About 45.1% of Uganda's population is Protestant (including Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%). Roman Catholics make up about 39.3% of the total population. Muslims together form just about 13.7% of the total population. Other minor denominational groups make up the remaining fraction of the population. 

The Republic of Uganda, just like its neighboring countries, is blessed with abundance of natural resources such as arable land, gold, copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone and salt. However, despite the abundance of natural and human resources, the Republic of Uganda is crippled by so many political, socio-economic and developmental challenges. 

The Republic of Uganda has a literacy rate of 76.5% for the total population with female literacy rate hovering around 70.8%. In other words, just about 70.8% of Uganda's female population above the age 15 can read and write. Although this doesn't sound too bad, the literacy rate falls sharply in some rural and sub-urban communities.

Overpopulation is gradually becoming a major challenge in Uganda today not just because of Uganda's comparatively smaller total land area, but also because of the Uganda's population distribution. The central and southern parts of Uganda (especially along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert) are highly concentrated while the northern parts of the country remains sparsely populated. 

Because of overpopulation, Uganda has started draining some wetlands for agricultural and infrastructural uses. The reality however is that, every time a wetland is lost, or allowed to degrade, the entire watershed loses value to humans, animals and plants.

According to UNAIDS, more than 1.5 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda with about 21,000 officially recorded HIV/AIDS-related deaths in 2019. The Republic of Uganda currently has HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of 6.1% and several children have been orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, most people living with the virus in Uganda today don't even have access to antiretroviral treatment. 

Apart from the deadly HIV/AIDS, diseases such as Malaria, hepatitis A and E, typhoid fever, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness), schistosomiasis and rabies continue to destroy several lives in Uganda today.

Water pollution (mostly from agricultural and industrial runoffs), deforestation (the rampant cutting down of trees mostly for timber), overgrazing of farm animals (which leads to soil erosion and land degradation), widespread poaching (which is severely affecting wildlife population in Uganda today. NB. Mountain gorillas are critically endangered), etc. are some of the major environmental issues facing Uganda today.

The fraction of people living in absolute poverty has declined in Uganda. In fact, according to Uganda's government figures, the percentage of people living below the national poverty line declined from 31.1% in 2006 to 19.7% in 2013. This sounds great. However, the major issue here is that, Uganda's poverty estimate data is based on $0.88–$1.04 per person per day as the national poverty line. Meanwhile, the World Bank's international poverty line is now $2.15 per day. In other words, a person living on $0.89 a day may be classified "OK" by Uganda's estimate. However, any person living on less than $2.15 a day is considered "absolutely poor" by the international poverty line.

Just about 29% of Uganda's total population has access to electricity (or covered by the national grid). Although Kampala and other major cities and towns are somehow covered, just about 17% of rural and sub-urban communities are covered by the national power grid (Uganda Electricity Transmission which is operated and managed by the Uganda Electricity Transmission Company Ltd or UETCL).

Although the Republic of Uganda can boast of "political stability", the system of government in Uganda can also be classified as a dictatorial rule. Uganda's current leader, Yoweri Museveni, has been in power since 1986. The dictatorial regime of one of Africa's craziest leaders, Idi Amin, from 1971 to 1979, was responsible for the deaths of more than 300,000 people. The guerrilla war and human rights abuses under another crazy leader, Milton Obote from 1980 to 1985, claimed at least another 100,000 human lives. Comparatively, the rule of the current leader, Yoweri Museveni since 1986, has brought relative stability and some economic growth to Uganda. However, the basic fact remains. Uganda has become the Museveni family property. Museveni has been ruling Uganda for decades with iron hands and his son is set to take over after his death.

Just like in most other African countries, rampant corruption and poor governance continues to tear Uganda apart.

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Oscar Otindo
About 80 cabinet and state ministers, more than 390 Members of Parliament, over 278 political appointees who include about 80 resident District Commissioners and assistants, more than 75 presidential advisors and over 43 private presidential secretaries and their deputies.

This is just a picture of Uganda's over-the-top public administration. "Pearl of Africa" as commonly known, is argued that, not only is it a sleeping giant but also an over-governed and unproductive country.

Uganda has many administrative units. About 50,000 local councils, about 7431 parishes, about 1403 sub-counties, at least 167 counties, about 22 municipalities and about 144 districts (including the newly approved 23 districts). All these structures have at least 10-man executive officials. So, the total number of officials is more than 10 times the number of every administrative unit.

How does this nation manage its servants? Uganda's expenditure is very enormous and abnormal.

A presidential advisor and his deputy earn more than 908.5 million Ugandan shillings, enough to pay 378 primary school teachers a salary of 200,000 Ugandan shillings a month. Private presidential secretary and his assistant earn more than 7.5 billion shillings, enough to support 2,077 primary schools with 800 pupils each, buy drugs for 890 health centers, construct 935 classrooms or pay 37,500 primary school teachers. Every member of Parliament earns at least 15 million shillings a month excluding the allowances. The allowances here include free government vehicles, free fuel and maintenance, etc. In other words, the allowances together are about 3 times the base salary every month.

In 1986, when Uganda's National Resistance Movement came to power, inflation was around 240 percent and it collected just 84 billion in revenue. It worked tirelessly and revived the economy reducing inflation to 0.3 percent. The present government collects 4 trillion in revenue but even sectors like education and health which used to be very vibrant in Uganda, are now in shambles.

Uganda has around 43 million people. According to the ministry of health, there's one doctor to every 300,000 people. Surprisingly, there's about one administrative leader to every 600 Ugandans. Uganda has one of the poorest administrative structures in the entire world. The poor administration can and only provides poor services to its citizens. The government at times makes good policies but unfortunately, it is almost impossible for Uganda to implement some of those policies. In the end, despite the numerous policies on paper, almost nothing good comes out them.

For example, policies like the decentralizatio n policy to help distribute resources evenly, the minimum health package which puts all health centers under a structured organization, the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework which would make the government budget and expenditure known after every 3 years, etc. are examples of some great policies which do exist only on paper and not in reality. Such good and "efficient" policies have been made by the government on paper yet over 600 billion Ugandan shillings go down the drain without any trace almost every single year.

The main reason why such good policies cannot be implemented in Uganda today is due mainly to the government's huge expenditure on its top leaders and the very poor wages paid to its civil servants. This has led to absenteeism, lack of morale, etc. as most of these poor public servants take other jobs besides their regular jobs just to make ends meet.

It is quite sad considering the fact that Uganda has produced some of the brightest people in all of East Africa with prestigious institutions (such as the prestigious Makerere University) but has the lowest productivity in the entire region. The truth of the matter is that Ugandans keep juggling at their available natural resources to the point of stuffing all their leaders to the brim like holiday turkeys.

Another major problem facing Uganda today is the problem of "let's pass new laws". Uganda has this "barbaric" culture of passing laws to solve all problems. This has led to nothing but a big country full of laws but lawlessness. Laws are being passed every single day, yet the ones present are neither effective nor implementable. For example, Uganda has failed miserably at implementing the traffic and productive laws and because the government is beginning to feel the heat from the media, Uganda has passed yet another law to gag the media, limiting public participation in governance and locking up journalists with dissenting views (a clear indication of an extremely failed government. Dictatorship in this case).

Pundits say that, for the country to develop, it needs to reduce its administrative leaders, get more serious in enforcing its policies and laws. The administration is the main cause of the government's huge expenditure, leading to lack of funds in other sectors and nothing but extreme poverty and hunger across the entire country. Uganda as a nation needs to be serious in economic transformation and development by getting its priorities right. The first step of which includes getting rid of this highly bloated but very unproductive system of administration. And don't forget Uganda still houses some of the most corrupt leaders in the world today.

Civil societies, great donors, private sector experts and political analysts have all raised numerous concerns over the governments expenditure on its administration, but their pleas have fallen on deaf ears. Uganda as a country does not only need a budget discipline but also in great need of getting its priorities right and starting from the top seems like the most sensible thing to do especially at this time.

After reading your post, now I think I know why Uganda's Judge Julia Sebutinde of the International Criminal Court did what she did in the South Africa against Israel case at the ICJ. She was a total embarassment not just to Uganda and Africa but also to the whole of humanity. In fact, I was wondering why Uganda sent such a senseless person to the ICJ. She voted against even "humanitarian aid" for Gaza. Even if she sold her conscience for money, she should have applied some wisdom in the voting part. How else could she explain voting against "humanitarian aid"? That was the dumbest thing I've seen any legal practioner done in my entire life. That was the epitome of evil and senselessness. Being the first black woman to the sit on the ICJ, I expected at least some iota of maturity and wisdom. Quite disappointed.
Gumma Muhumza
Your article shows the essence of real presidential elections. Uganda's administration would not be a blight on the economy if general elections served their genuine purposes. Uganda is a long overdue catastrophy due to one and only man, H.E.Y.K. MUSEVEN. I was so fanatic about his governance during my university years, but slowly and shamelessly he has gone against everything he stood for. When you see a wise and visionary once in a century leader Uganda never hopped for turn into a dictator, any sane person would utterly loose hope in humanity.
Talk about bad governance and the duplication of administrative posts only to drain an already weak economy. Sorting this problem is not rocket science, but utter greed at the cost of public purse. Shame really shame!!!
nannyanga restetuta
I thank you for this note but I think major problem be it the other problems is the devastating nature of the Agriculture today.Most of the problems that the Ugandans are facing today stem from the sickened agricultural industry for example poverty, unemployment, diseases, hunger, corruption among others. Once the agricultural sector is well developed, it will help provide a cornerstone for fighting the other problems hence a better Uganda. Ya-lama!
Faith Asiimwe
The main problem is us Ugandans, we call for more constituencies thinking that we shall get good services since the population has been reduced. I'm a student at Makerere but the main issue at the university is constant strikes as well. The other problem we face is the high ignorance rate. We are not aware of what is happening in our country since the government does not give us accountability nor is it transparent. Now, the European people have also over-influenced our political, social, economic systems. We tend to call ourselves independent but we are not since even the anti-homosexual bill was not signed because the Western countries threatened to stop giving us aid.
Abdul Wahab
Although I might not be living in Uganda and I'm still only a teen, I do visit on a yearly basis. Reading this has really devastated me, that this is how our country is operating as we speak today. I really do hope someone out there will come and help us escape this miserable state we're in. Because it seems that we, the people of Uganda are not able to change our own country without having someone by our side to guide and support us. I can't stress it enough, how shocking it is for me to have discovered that this is how badly our country has degraded and we are still OK with calling our selves the pearl of Africa. I am not downgrading our people nor do I have the right to because I have seen the difficulty some face just to live throughout the day. I really hope that there will come a day where Uganda will start moving forward for the better life of its' people.
Qazi Tariq
Uganda's many problems in 2022 include: 1. Poor governance 2. Low literacy rate 3. Corruption 4. Government instability 5. Diseased Law system 6. Everyone is an enemy to each other 7. People are not honest with their own country
There is one thing you have not talked about that is seriously killing this country slowly. That is tribalism. The moment the president is able to acknowledge that there is need to appoint individual on the basis of ability and qualification then everything will start to fall in place,
Sorry to say it is not only Uganda that is facing such crises. Even my country Cameroon. I do believe we Africans should take things seriously because, with all the natural resource we are still considered the poorest continent.
So, what do you plan to do about it? How will you do it and how can you be sure it will result in what you expect. There is no country without problems. Joe Biden is addressing problems; British PM is addressing problems. Secondly, problems have a beginning. Talk about where they have been and where they are going. Otherwise, there would be no need for leaders.
Uganda does not have a president. What Uganda has is just a group of gangs who have come to rob the country for their personal interests. No president who loves his country would allow it be drained like what m7 has drained Uganda. He thinks he is the only person who has vision for Uganda and he must know that before him, there were great men who did most of the things which he claims to be his and today, there are better people who have Uganda at heart. Whether he likes it or not, he must leave.
Thanks for problem identification, it's now upon the public to brainstorm on the peaceful and democratic ideas to redress the sampled problems which list isn't complete yet. It's proper to think through and display those literate ideas to the right people, plan the implementation strategies and get on action instead of pinpointing high dignitaries the way "SIJO" is doing here. Uganda is only team led by Mzee, he is Not Uganda's problem, instead he has allowed us opportunities to learn a lot and to think as well. We're only looking for solutions, but not Loopholes in Mzee's leadership. He's doing his best which you cannot do anyway, when given opportunity.
K. Ananse
The good people of Uganda need to wake up and reassess the situation. In my humble opinion, the number one problem facing Uganda today is poor leadership and bad governance, and not any external force as some people want us to believe.

And talking about poor leadership and government, who is in charge? In other words, if we were to be honest, we would come to the realization that, Yoweri Museveni is the number problem facing Uganda today. He has been in power for over 3 decades but what and what are his achievements?

Despite the abundance of natural and human resources, Uganda cannot even achieve a lower middle-income status which is very sad. Unfortunately, however, Museveni has removed the age limit from the constitution which means, he will continue to sit on Uganda's prosperity until he finally dies (and that can be many years to come).

Even Nelson Mandela who suffered so much for his country, didn't hesitate at all when the time came for him to go. Mandela could have remained president for life, but he realized the importance of letting go of power. If Mandela could let go of power, what is preventing Museveni from doing so if not greed?

Jenet Atto
As the saying goes, once the head of the fish is rotten the whole body is then rotten. Our biggest problem in Uganda here is selfishness. Most people don't want to share the little they have. If we could only walk the talk, all would be well for us Ugandans.
I think Uganda deserves better in every single aspect that defines a democratic country. The education system also needs to be reviewed as well to equip Ugandans with the necessary skills to create jobs. Otherwise, we are hopeful, because everything that has a beginning definitely has an end.
Makibwe Daniel
Thanks for all your great submissions and that only shows how concerned you are towards the wellbeing of our mother land. I would stretch it plainly and address the main issue that is killing Uganda to be identity crisis. If everyone knew who they are and what they can give out from their innate abilities and potential, every part could be performing its role. Me I started the campaign. God has given us enough for all of us. We collect money and help the most impoverished families in slums. That's a starting point. Some great writer said the solution is always inscribed within the problems and challenges we face. If you have seen it do something about it. 0703831789 if your led to partner with us that's the number. We also educate kids in primary with less fees charges like some students pay 100k a term which can be collected by two well-wishers, and we get an informed generation.
Janet Najo
Uganda's problems are especially corruption, tribalism, unemployment and selfishness in the government. And the long term governance of our leaders is also a big problem in our country Uganda. That's why the spirit of nationalism and patriotism is dying out in ugandans.
Solomon Okello
In simple response, I can say Uganda has developed corruption mostly from the top leaders, hence making all government workers to work for their families and friends not the community, which has now created poor leadership.