As its name implies, South Africa is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. In fact, the southernmost point of the African continent, Cape Agulhas (about 150 km east of the 'Cape of Good Hope'), is in South Africa.
South Africa borders the Republics of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Namibia to the north. To the east, South Africa borders the Republic of Mozambique and the Kingdom of Swaziland (South Africa almost completely surrounds Swaziland). Although Lesotho is a neighboring country, the Republic of Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory.
The Republic of South Africa has a total land area of about 1,219,090 squared kilometers (about 4,620sqkm of which is covered by water) with about 2,798 km of coastline.
The Republic of South Africa has an "estimated" population of 57.5 million people (as of 2018) with the population growth rate hovering around 1.6%.
About 62% of South Africa's population lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Pretoria the administrative capital (Pretoria contains about 2.3 million people with urban growth rate of 2.97%), Johannesburg the economic powerhouse of South Africa (Johannesburg is also the largest city by population size in South Africa today. Johannesburg has an "estimated" urban population of 10.1 million people with annual growth rate of 2.14%), Cape Town (The second most populous city in South Africa today. According to UN projections, Cape Town has an "estimated" population of 3.78 million people as of 2018), etc.
South Africa, the "Rainbow nation", is a multi-racial country with a beautiful blend of several ethnic and racial groups. Black Africans make up about 79% of the total population. Whites (English, Dutch, etc.) make up about 9.6% of the total population. Colored people (mixed) make up about 8.9%. Asians (mostly Indians) form about 2.5% of the total population.
There are several religious and denominational groups in South Africa today. Protestants make up about 36.6% of the total population (this includes Zionist Christians 11.1%, Pentecostals and Charismatics 8.2%, Methodists 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7% and Anglican 3.8%) and Catholics 7.1%. Other Christian groups (including Adventists) together make up about 36% of the total population. Muslims are about 1.5% of the total population. Other religious groups together make up about 2.3% of the population with the unspecified and none religious people forming about 16.5% of the total population.
Although just about 8.2% of the population do speak English Language, English isn't the only official language in South Africa. There are about 10 other official languages written and spoken in South Africa today. IsiZulu (Official. About 23.82% of the population do speak), IsiXhosa (Official. About 17.64% of the population do speak), Afrikaans (Official. About 13.35% of the population speak and write), Sepedi (Official. About 9.39% of the population), Setswana (Official. About 8.2% of the population), Sesotho (Official. About 7.93%), Xitsonga (Official. About 4.44% of the population), siSwati (Official. About 2.66%), Tshivenda (Official. About 2.28%) and isiNdebele (Official. About 1.59% of the population).
South Africa, the most advanced country in Africa today, is blessed with abundance of natural resources such as gold, gem diamond, copper, chromium, antimony, platinum, uranium, coal, iron ore, manganese, vanadium, nickel, phosphates, tin, salt, rare earth elements, natural gas, etc.
The Republic of South Africa has a literacy rate of about 86.4% (one of the highest on the continent) which implies about 86.4% of the total population of South Africa above the age 15 can at least read and write which is far better than in most other African countries today. Quality education however, is very hard to come by in some places (especially the rural communities) in South Africa.
Despite being the most advanced country in Africa today (with a good literacy rate and abundance of natural resources), millions of people (Black, White, Colored, etc) continue to live in poverty and despair across South Africa today. It is worse especially at the outskirts of big cities and towns (in places like Soweto, a lower-class-populated urban area of the city of Johannesburg). Although the end of Apartheid (One of the most racist systems of government the world has ever witnessed) has brought so much improvement in the lives of millions across the country, the number of people (black, white and brown South Africans) living under the international poverty line, has sadly remained very high especially in the rural and sub-urban communities. Millions of South Africans feel left out by the current administration.
South Africa has an HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of about 18.9% (one of the highest in the world today). According to the World Health Organization, more than 7.1 million people were living with HIV in 2016. There were about 270,000 new HIV infections with about 110,000 AIDS-related officially recorded deaths in 2016. Although South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in the world, only about 56% of adults (infected) were on antiretroviral treatment in 2016.
Although living conditions in South Africa are generally better than in most other African countries, the Republic of South Africa, despite a recent drop in crime rates, has one of the highest crime rates in the world today with several violent crimes (such as robbery, rape, and murder) recorded every single day. Just like in America, Brazil, and other racially charged communities around the world, racism and discrimination continue to threaten several lives and properties in South Africa today. Also, xenophobia, the intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries, is sadly on the rise in South Africa today.
Just like in most other African countries, illiteracy and ignorance, corruption and poor governance, etc., continue to tear South Africa apart. Nelson Mandela's dream of an "ideal" and "free" society, is far from reality in today's South Africa.