akufo addoThe Republic of Ghana or "Ghana" for short, is a West African country located along the Gulf of Guinea (the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean) between the Republics of Ivory Coast and Togo. Ghana borders the Republic of Burkina Faso to the north, the Republic of Togo to the east, the Republic of Ivory Coast to the West and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.

Ghana has a total land area of about 238,53 squared kilometers (about 11,000sq.km covered by water) with about 539km of coastline. Just about 20.7% of Ghana's total land area remains arable (land good for farming).

Ghana has an "estimated" population of 29.4 million people with the population growth rate around 2.2%. About 55% of Ghana's population lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Accra the capital (Accra, the capital of Ghana, contains about 2.3 million people) and Kumasi, the capital of the Ashanti region of Ghana (Kumasi contains about 1.8 million people). Other major towns and cities such as Tamale (the capital of the Northern region of Ghana), Sunyani (the capital of the Brong Ahafo region), Wa (the capital of the Upper West region), Bolgatanga (the capital of the Upper East region), Sekondi Takoradi (the capital of the Western region) and Koforidua (the capital of the Eastern region of Ghana),etc. also contain significant portions of the population.

Ghana was the first Sub-Saharan African country to gain independence (from colonial rule). Ghana gained independence in 1957 from the United Kingdom. Ghana became a republic on July 1, 1960. Lake Volta, the largest artificial lake in the world, is found in Ghana.

Ghana is one of the most culturally rich countries in all of Africa with a beautiful blend of several ethnic and racial groups living peacefully together. Ghana without a doubt, is one of the most peaceful countries in all of Africa. Akans (the most populous ethnic group in Ghana today) make up about 45.3% of the total population. Mole-Dagbon (the next major ethnic group) make up about 15.2% of the total population. The Ewes (a major ethnic group) make up about 11.7% of the total population, followed by the Ga-Dangmes (about 7.3% of the population), the Guans (about 4% of the total population), the Gurmas (about 3.6% of the population), the Grusis (about 2.6% of the population), the Mande-Busangas (about 1% of the total population) with the several other minor groups forming the remaining fraction of the population.

Ghana (formerly known as Gold Coast), just like its neighboring countries, is blessed with abundance of natural resources such as gold, silver, manganese, bauxite, timber, petroleum, fish, rubber, salt, limestone, industrial diamonds, etc. However, despite the abundance of natural resources, Ghana just like its neighboring countries, is crippled by so many socio-economic problems. 

Ghana has a literacy rate of about 75% for the total population with the female literacy rate hovering around 58%. In other words, just about 58% of the total population of females above the age 15 can read and write which is very bad considering Ghana's reputation as a "lower middle-income" country. Most "lower middle-income" and "middle-income" countries in the world today invest more in education because education is what powers economies into the next stages. 

The two decades of political stability in Ghana has helped the country a lot in almost all sectors of its economy. However, despite the significant improvement in agriculture and other sectors of the economy, Ghana like most African countries today continue to face so many developmental challenges. 

About 60 percent of the Ghanaian population is into Agriculture. Most farmers in Ghana like in most other African countries today, are subsistence farmers who grow crops and rear animals just to feed themselves and their families. However, lack of farming subsidies, poor government regulations, poor market facilities, poor farming practices, poor climatic conditions in some areas, etc. continue to keep millions of people (especially rural farmers) in absolute poverty.

Ghana is the second leading producer of cocoa beans in the world (producing about 900 thousand tons a year). However, this major cash crop sometimes meet lower prices at the international market. Also, the state institution in charge of cocoa production and distribution, the Ghana Cocoa Board (Cocobod), is one of the most corrupt institutions in the country. It may surprise you to know that the salary of the CEO of Ghana Cocoa Board is more than twice that of the president of Ghana. In other words, those corrupt executives in charge of cocoa production and distribution in Ghana benefit the most from Ghana's cocoa. The poor farmers who toil days and nights in cocoa plantations across the country are left with nothing but poverty and despair.

Most villages and towns in Ghana today lack good drinking water, hospitals, basic sanitation ( lack of basic sanitation remains a major problem even in Accra the capital), quality education, etc.

The northern parts of Ghana unlike the rest of the country, get very unpredictable levels of rainfall in a year, which leaves the upper East, the upper west, and the Northern regions of Ghana mostly dry and dusty during much of the year. This doesn't favor agriculture at all in most parts. Rainfall in the northern parts of Ghana is often unpredictable, sometimes causing unpredictable flooding in some areas.

Lack of good drinking water was and remains a major problem in the upper regions of Ghana. Previous governments and NGOs did great for some of these areas by providing them with boreholes and pipe-borne water, which has helped a lot in the eradication of the guinea-worm and other water-borne diseases. However, great help is still needed because most communities in Ghana still do not have access to good drinking water and water for domestic purposes.

Inadequate power (electricity) supply in the big cities and towns and the total lack of it in many rural and sub-urban communities across the country, remain a major problem in Ghana today. Most communities in Ghana are yet to benefit from the national grid (powered by the Akosombo dam). Most towns and communities across the country lack power supply and depend mostly on portable generators, batteries, torchlights, kerosene lamps, etc. Even in the big cities and towns covered by the national grid, there is inadequate power supply, an everyday problem locally referred to as "Dumsor". "Dumsor" remains a major problem even in accra, the capital of Ghana.

Youth education, especially girl-child and sex education in Ghana, is helping a lot in breaking the cycle of new HIV/AIDS infections. However, more help is needed especially in the rural and sub-urban areas where illiteracy rate remains very high. According to UNAIDS, there were more than 290,000 adults and children living with HIV in Ghana in 2016 with over 20,000 newly infected cases. Ghana recorded more than 15,000 HIV/AIDS related deaths in 2016 with the number expected to rise in coming years unless more and more infected people receive antiretroviral treatment. Ghana's HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate currently hovers around 1.6% with over 270,000 children orphaned due to AIDS. The sad thing is that, many of those living with the virus don't even have access to antiretroviral treatment.

Just like in most other African countries today, poor governance and rampant corruption continue to hit Ghana from all corners, leaving the average Ghanaian with nothing but poverty and despair. Almost every political figure in Ghana today is corrupt in one way or the other.

K. Ananse
#10 K. Ananse
Kwame Nkrumah was great for Africa as a whole but his bigger than normal ego almost completely destroyed Ghana. Without Nkrumah's insane ego, Ghana could be like South Korea. The Europeans did irreparable damage to Ghana and Africa as a whole. However, let's not forget the fact that Ghana was the richest nation in sub-Saharan Africa in 1957 (the year Ghana gained independence).

Ghana and South Korea had almost exact per capita income in 1957. Ghana had a per capita income of $490. In comparison, South Korea's per capita income was $491. By the early 1980’s, Ghana’s per capita income had been reduced to $400. In comparison, South Korea’s per capita income had grown to a whopping $2,000. By 1990 South Korea’s per capita income was ten times larger than Ghana. Ghana's per capita income at this point was $481 while South Korea's was $4,832.

When Kwame Nkrumah was elected leader in 1957, Ghana was economically very viable. In fact, Ghana was the leading exporter of cocoa contributing between 30-40% of the world' s total output. Ghana possessed over ten percent of the world’s gold and also exported significant amounts of diamond, bauxite, manganese, and mahogany. Ghana's reserves were more than $532 million. However, by the time Nkrumah was overthrown in 1966, Ghana was over $1 billion in debt with a terrible credit.
#9 James
First of all, Ghana is poor, don't lie to yourselves guys.

No.1 enemy of Ghana is "Corruption".
1. Everyone wants to get rich quick without working for it. (Corruption)
2. Politicians run for office because they don't have jobs and looking for ways to make money quick. (Corruption)
3. Ghanaians can deposit huge amounts of stolen money in their accounts and no one will question them where they get the cash. (Corruption)
4. Police and immigration enroll in the service and just after 1 year they start building mansions. (Corruption)

The list goes on and on and on.

No.2 enemy of Ghana is "Lies".

No.3 enemy of Ghana is "Laziness".

One simple reason:
Ghana education system only teaches Ghanaians to master corruption and lies.

I'm a Ghanaian and I know what I'm saying. I became aware of this only after living and working abroad for 15 years.

Kill above enemies and Ghana will prosper.
#8 Clement
Ghana is blessed with all the necessary materials needed for better economy but here be the case the elected citizens are ruling contrary to what they are expected to do. I would like to urge all youth of today to mobilize ourselves and fight for our freedoms in order to champion our interest as good citizens of Ghana. Ghana is not for a particular group of people, Ghana is for us all. moreover, the so called men of God should pray for Ghana and stop depicting flashy cars. They should use their platform to educate Ghana.
Nortey Whitney
#7 Nortey Whitney
Ghana is actually not poor . God has blessed us with so many resources but the truth is they are not being managed properly. Our leaders today only think of their family and their pockets. Bribery and Corruption is also a problem of Ghana not developing. Some of our leaders use their positions to get what they want illegally and they are let go when found out.
Our country is developing and not developed because we only depend on primary resources only instead of depending on the primary, secondary and tertiary resources. So let's rise and elect good leaders in order for our country to have justice and also develop.
Sarbah Isaac
#6 Sarbah Isaac
Our country Ghana is blessed with natural resources needed for a country to be called 'developed' not 'developing'. We have the human resources which if much attention is directed to, can efficiently and effectively utilize the other available resources. When you look around today, the attention and focus of the youth is directed to owning properties ( such as a large size of land for building mansions, fleet of cars, etc). Ghanaians now boast of properties which do not aid nation development. Just a fraction of the rich channel their resources to agricultural sector and that is not going help. Demarcation of land should be created by the government to control the size of land needed to raise building infrastructures (especially, the estate development). If not, a time is coming where even common fresh water might be imported into the country since the importation of common commodities are ongoing.
Ghana is not poor, we are blessed with so many natural resources but we need prudent management of our resources for our people. Greediness is what has engorged our development so far, those in positions look to their pockets and family only at the expense of the country.LETS RISE FELLOW GHANAIANS AND MAKE OUR COUNTRY BETTER
Edem Emmanuel Kabotso
#4 Edem Emmanuel Kabotso
Now, I think it is time for us to rise up. Because we have caused ourselves a lot of harms. it is not that we cannot produce most of the produces that we even import. We have capable human resource for these product but most of them have been brain washed to sit down thinking of white collar jobs. when we talk of efficiency, we mean using less to do more. Thus, Ghana does not need huge loans to function well. Perhaps, Ghana even have citizens who are billionaires so why don't we channel these monies into developing our economy so that the interest on this debt can even remain in the economy. we need to reorient ourselves fellow citizens of Ghana. Ghana needs change
Lorraine Bradley
#3 Lorraine Bradley
It's imperative for the government to begin a program of teaching trades beginning in junior high school. Every person should learn a trade. All developed nations have this available because these skilled professions provide a good living for which no expensive higher education is needed. It has to begin somewhere and it has to begin now.
Ebenezer Dzabaku
#2 Ebenezer Dzabaku
Sometimes I don't understand most of us Africans, we keep on blaming the west for everything but we have forgotten that we are our own enemies. we gave them what is ours because most us are too greedy and corrupt and don't love our rich continent giving to us by the creator. If indeed the world economy is rule by corporations and not governments as i agree then what prevent Africans from coming together to build their continents corporations. We lack negotiation skills as a people. All we do is to accept anything western. Just look at our populations, total land area and resources. we have to learn from China they build their country's economy around their population and land size. China has almost the same land size to America but China population is about 1.4 billion and that of America is about 300 million plus. but see China is not going around the world begging for arms to survive. in this time we have to look for true Africans and not stomach African s
Lizabeth Franco
#1 Lizabeth Franco
I lived in Ghana delivereing AID to people for 2 years and I can say that Ghana is not a poor country. It has the best universities and decent institutions and most importantly a safe country and reasonably well established capcity to make the country a vibrant economy in Africa. The main problem is that Ghanaians do rely on someone else to do the work and bring AID from outside. It is a shame that in the most fertile and water rich agriculture land, Ghana is a net importer of tomatoes, onion, chicken and fish. The potential is there to cut entirely the AID and use the fertile and beautiful land of Ghana to feed its own people and feed many countries around them, but what is going on so far is to rely on someone else to deliver the food and free money from outside so to maintain the high corrupt system and pretend that everything is good.