The Arab Republic of Egypt (or "Egypt" for short) is a country located at the Northeastern corner of Africa covering a total land area of about 1,001,450 squared kilometers (about 6,000sqkm of which is covered by water) with about 2,450km of coastline.
Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea in the north between Libya (to the west) and the Gaza Strip (and Israel to the northeast). Egypt also borders North Sudan in the south, the Red Sea to the east and south and also includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula (situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, serving as a land bridge between Asia and Africa).
Egypt has an "estimated" population of 106 million people with the population growth rate hovering around 1.93%. This makes Egypt the third most populous country in Africa (following Nigeria and Ethiopia) and the most populous country in the Arabic-speaking world.
Almost half of Egypt's population (about 43.4%) lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Cairo the capital and Alexandria. The metropolitan area of Cairo is home to about 22 million people. Alexandria, Egypt's second largest city and former capital, has a metro area population of about 5.4 million people.
Although Egypt covers a vast area of land (1,001,450sq km), the greater part of its population lives near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 squared kilometers (or 15,000sq mi) and this is because, the only arable land is found near the banks of the Nile River. This area (near the banks of the Nile River) is highly overpopulated compared to the desert (Sahara desert) areas which are only sparsely populated.
The desert areas are sparsely populated due in part to the periodic droughts, hot driving windstorms especially in Spring, dust storms, sandstorms, frequent earthquakes, landslides, etc.
Because of the overpopulation in some areas especially near the banks of the Nile River, the few arable lands are being lost to urbanization. Also, the Nile, which is the only perennial water source in Egypt, is being overstrained due to the rapid population growth near its banks putting much pressure on the available natural resources. The improper sewage disposals, agricultural and industrial runoffs/effluents, oil pollution, etc. continue to pollute the available water bodies (this is also severely affecting aquatic life).
Egypt has a literacy rate of 71.4% for the entire population with the female literacy rate hovering around 59.4%. In other words, about 71.4% of the total population of Egypt above age 15 can at least read and write. On the other hand, just about 59.4% of Egypt's female population above age 15 can read and write which is very bad.
Egypt is almost "HIV-free" compared to countries like Botswana and Swaziland. Egypt has a HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of less than 0.1%. Just around 11,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009 with less than 500 deaths recorded within the same year. Egypt is also spared when it comes to malaria. However, Egypt is not spared at all when it comes to Schistosomiasis (sleeping sickness), bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, Rift Valley and typhoid fever.
Another major health problem facing Egypt today is Obesity. In 2006, more than 30% of Egyptian adults were overweight according to World Health Organization. Egypt is the 8th most Obese country in the world today. Meanwhile, about 6.8% of Egyptian children under the age 5 were underweight in 2008.
Poor leadership, corruption, unequal distribution of funds, and lack of trust in the central government, remain major challenges in Egypt today. Egyptians made their voices heard in 2011 through a "peaceful" revolution (which resulted in the ouster of the then president Mubarak who was in office for decades as head of state and head of government).
There is a hidden poverty in Egypt today. Poverty unknown to the outside world. The few in the upper classes control almost everything and sometimes paint a picture that all is well in Egypt. Meanwhile, the poor continues to wallow in poverty sometimes with no voice at all to even cry out for help. The great "golden eagle" protects just a selected few while vultures devour the rest sometimes in silence.