The Arab Republic of Egypt or "Egypt" for short, is one of the most historically rich countries in the world. Egypt is located at the Northeastern corner of Africa and covers a total land area of about 1,001,450sq.km (about 6,000sq.km of which is covered by water) with a coastline of about 2,450km.
Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea in the north between Libya (to the west) and the Gaza Strip (and Israel to the northeast). Egypt also borders North Sudan in the south, the Red Sea to the east and south and also includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula (situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, serving as a land bridge between Asia and Africa).
Egypt has an "estimated" population of 96 million people with the population growth rate hovering around 1.93% which makes Egypt the third most populous country in all of Africa and the most populous country in the Arab (Arabic-speaking) world.
Although Arabic is the official language, many educated people in Egypt today do speak and understand either or both English and French which helps a lot in communication especially with the outside world. About 90% of the total population of Egypt are Sunni Muslims. The Coptic and other Christians make up the remaining 10%.
Almost half of the total population of Egypt (about 43.4%) lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Cairo the capital of Egypt (Cairo contains about 11 million people), Alexandria (another major city. Alexandria contains about 4.5 million people). Although Egypt covers a vast area of land (1,001,450sq km), the majority of its total population lives near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000sq km ( or 15,000sq mi) why because the only arable land is found near the banks of the Nile River. This area (near the banks of the Nile River) is highly overpopulated compared to the desert (Sahara desert) areas which are only sparsely populated. The periodic droughts, hot driving windstorms especially in Spring, dust storms, sandstorms, frequent earthquakes, landslides, etc. do not favor life at all especially in some of the desert areas.
Because of the overpopulation in some areas especially near the banks of the Nile River, the few arable lands are being lost to urbanization. Also, the Nile which is the only perennial water source in Egypt is being overstrained due to the rapid population growth near the banks of the Nile River putting much pressure on the available natural resources. The improper sewage disposals, agricultural and industrial runoffs/effluents, oil pollution, etc. continue to pollute the available water bodies (also harming the aquatic life).
Egypt has a literacy rate of 71.4% for the entire population with the female literacy rate around 59.4%. In other words, about 71.4% of the total population of Egypt above age 15 can at least read and write which is far better than in most countries in Africa and the Arab world. On the other hand, only about 59.4% of Egypt's female population above age 15 can read and write which falls below expectation compared to certain countries in Africa (countries like Botswana, Kenya, etc.).
Compared to a country like Swaziland, Egypt is almost HIV-free. Egypt has a very low HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% which is far better than in most countries around the world. Just around 11,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009 with less than 500 deaths recorded within the same year. Egypt is also spared when it comes to the deadly malaria which continues to tear most sub-Saharan African countries into pieces. However, Egypt is not spared at all when it comes to Schistosomiasis (sleeping sickness), bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, Rift Valley and typhoid fever.
Another major health problem facing Egypt today is Obesity. In 2006, more than 30% of Egyptian adults were overweight according to World Health Organization. Egypt is the 8th most Obese country in the world today. Meanwhile, about 6.8% of Egyptian children under the age 5 were underweight in 2008.
Poor leadership, corruption, unequal distribution of funds, and lack of trust in the central government remain major problems facing Egypt today. Egyptians made their voices heard in 2011 through a "peaceful" revolution (which resulted in the ouster of the then president of Egypt Mubarak after decades in office as the head of state) although most Egyptians are yet to experience the change.
There is a hidden poverty in Egypt today. Poverty unknown to the outside world. The few in the upper classes control almost everything and sometimes paint the picture that all is well in Egypt. Meanwhile, the poor continues to wallow in poverty sometimes with no voice at all to even cry out for help. The great golden eagle protects just a selected few while vultures devour the rest sometimes in silence.