The People's Republic of Sierra Leone or Sierra Leone for short is a small west African country bordering the North Atlantic ocean between the People's Republic of Liberia (to the Southeast) and the Republic of Guinea (to the north and east).The Republic of Sierra Leone has a total land area of about 71,740 squared kilometers (about 120sq.km of which is covered by water) with about 402km of coastline. Just about 7.95% of the total land area of Sierra is arable (land good for farming). The Republic of Sierra Leone has an "estimated" population of about 5.5 million people with the population growth rate around 2.3%. About 38% of the total population of Sierra Leone lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Freetown the capital of Sierra Leone. Freetown contains about 900,000 people.
The People's Republic of Sierra Leone despite its small population size, remains one of the most culturally rich countries in all of Africa with a beautiful blend of several racial and ethnic groups living peacefully together. Temne the most dominant ethnic group makes up about 35% of the total population followed by the Mende (31% of the total population). The Limba and the Kono make up 8% and 5% of the total population respectively followed by the Kriole who make up about 2% of the total population. Please note: Historically, the Kriole people are the direct descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area (known as Krio) in the late 18th century. The Mandingo and the Loko people together make up about 4% of the total population. The remaining 15% of the total population consists of several other minor groups including the several refugees from Liberia's civil war, Europeans, Indians, Lebanese, Pakistanis, etc. Although English remains the official language, several other foreign and local languages including Mende, Temne and Krio are spoken in Sierra Leone today.
Islam remains the most dominant religious group in Sierra Leone today with about 60% of the population being Muslims. Christians make up just about 10% of the total population with indigenous believers forming the remaining 30% of the population.
The Republic of Sierra Leone just like its neighboring countries, is blessed with abundance of natural resources such diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite, etc. However, despite the abundance of natural resources in Sierra Leone today, the People's Republic of Sierra Leone remains one of the poorest countries in all of Africa. Sierra Leone has a literacy rate of about 35.1% for the entire population with the female literacy rate hovering around 24.4%. In other words, just about 24.4% of the total population of females above the age 15 living in Sierra Leone today can read and write which is one of the worst literacy rates in all of Africa. Poor education remains a major problem in Sierra Leone today.
The Republic of Sierra Leone remains one of the HIV/AIDS killing zones in Africa today with an HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of about 1.6%. According to official statistics, about 50,000 people were living with the disease in 2009 with about 3,000 deaths recorded within the same year. Besides the deadly HIV/AIDS, killer diseases such as Malaria, bacterial and protozoal diarrhoea, yellow fever, etc. continue to threaten several lives in Sierra Leone today.
Environmental degradation or the gradual deterioration of the environment caused mainly by deforestation, land pollution (caused mainly by poor farming practices such as improper disposals of agricultural and industrial runoffs), water pollution (caused mainly by improper sewage disposals), etc. remains a major problem in Sierra Leone today. Sierra Leone was in civil war between 1991 and 2002. The war destroyed several precious lives and properties and left Sierra Leone with nothing but absolute poverty. The present peaceful atmosphere in Sierra Leone has helped the country a lot in almost all sectors of its economy. However, despite the significant improvement, Illiteracy, poverty and hunger remain major problems in Sierra Leone today. Although the living conditions in Sierra Leone are somehow better than in countries such as Burkina Faso, the poverty and hunger levels in Sierra Leone today remain all time high compared to other African countries. According to a recent UNDP human development multidimensional poverty index, Sierra Leone is among the top 10 poorest countries in the world today with about 81.5 percent of its total population living in absolute poverty and hunger
Just like in most other African countries today, corruption, poor governance, poor management of public funds, etc. continue to tear Sierra Leone into pieces. The extremely poor education system in Sierra Leone today makes it even worse compared to most other African countries today.